Excellent and thorough documentation on how to use GIT can be found online on the official GIT documentation or by searching on Google. We summarize here only a set of commands that may be useful.
Set the push default behavior to push only the current branch¶
The default push behavior may not be what you expect: if a branch you are not working on changes, you may not be able to push your own branch, because git tries to check them all. To avoid this, use:
git config push.default upstream
to set the default push.default behaviour to push the current branch to its upstream branch. Note the actual string to set depends on the version of git; newer versions allow to use:
git config push.default simple
which is better; see also discussion on this stackoverflow page.
View commits that would be pushed¶
If you want to see which commits would be sent to the remote repository upon a
git push command, you can use (e.g. if you want to compare with the
origin/develop remote branch):
git log origin/develop..HEAD
to see the logs of the commits, or:
git diff origin/develop..HEAD
to see also the differences among the current
HEAD and the version on
Switch to another branch¶
You can switch to another branch with:
git checkout newbranchname
and you can see the list of checked-out branches, and the one you are in, with:
git branch -a to see also the list of remote branches).
Associate a local and remote branch¶
To tell GIT to always push a local branch (checked-out) to a remote branch
remotebranchname, check out the correct local branch and then
git push --set-upstream origin remotebranchname
From now on, you will just need to run
git push. This will create a new
.git/config similar to:
[branch "localbranchname"] remote = origin merge = refs/heads/remotebranchname
To rename a branch locally, from
git checkout oldname git branch -m oldname newname
If you want also to rename it remotely, you have to create a new branch and
then delete the old one. One way to do it, is first editing
so that the branch points to the new remote name, changing
refs/heads/newname in the correct section:
[branch "newname"] remote = origin merge = refs/heads/newname
Then, do a:
git push origin newname
to create the new branch, and finally delete the old one with:
git push origin :oldname
(notice the : symbol). Note that if you are working e.g. on GitHub, there may be a filter to disallow the deletion of branches (check in the repository settings, and then under “Branch management”). Moreover, the “Main branch” (set in the repository settings, under “Repository details”) cannot be deleted.
Create a new (lightweight) tag¶
If you want to create a new tag, e.g. for a new version, and you have checked out the commit that you want to tag, simply run:
git tag TAGNAME
git tag v0.2.0). Afterwards, remember to push the tag to the remote
repository (otherwise it will remain only local):
git push --tags
Create a new branch from a given tag¶
This will create a new
newbranchname branch starting from tag
git checkout -b newbranchname v0.2.0
Then, if you want to push the branch remotely and have git remember the association:
git push --set-upstream origin remotebranchname
(for the meaning of –set-upsteam see the section Associate a local and remote branch above).
Disallow a branch deletion, or committing to a branch, on GitHub¶
You can find these settings in the repository settings of the web interface, and then under “Branches”.
if you commit to a branch (locally) and then discover that you cannot push (e.g. you mistakenly committed to the master branch), you can remove your last commit using:
git reset --hard HEAD~1
(this removes one commit only, and you should have no local modifications; if you do it, be sure to avoid losing your modifications!)
Merge from a different repository¶
It is possible to do a pull request of a forked repository from the GitHub web interface. However, if one just wants to keep in sync, e.g., the main AiiDA repository with a fork you are working into without creating a pull request (e.g., for daily merge of your fork’s develop into the main repo’s develop), you can:
commit and pull all your changes in your fork
from the GitHub web interface, sync your fork with the main repository, if needed
go in a local cloned version of the main repository
[only the first time] add a remote pointing to the new repository, with the name you prefer (here:
git remote add myfork firstname.lastname@example.org:GITHUBUSER/FORKEDREPO.git
checkout to the correct branch you want to merge into (
git checkout develop)
git pull(just in case)
Fetch the correct branch of the other repository (e.g., the develop branch):
git fetch myfork develop
(this will fetch that branch into a temporary location called
Merge the modifications:
git merge FETCH_HEAD
Fix any merge conflicts (if any) and commit.
Finally, push the merged result into the main repository:git push
(or, if you did not use the default remote with
--set-upstream, specify the correct remote branch, e.g.
git push origin develop).
If you want to fetch and transfer also tags, use instead:
git fetch -t myfork develop git merge FETCH_HEAD git push --tags
to get the tags from myfork and then push them in the current repository.